#### introductory Quantum Chemistry

Module II: Introductory Quantum Chemistry and the quantum mechanical model of the atom (10 hrs)

Operator algebra – linear and Hermitian operators, Laplacian and Hamiltonian operators,
eigen functions and eigen values of an operator. Non-commuting operators and the
Heisenberg's uncertainty principle.
Postulates of quantum mechanics. Well behaved functions. Time independent Schrödinger
wave equation for conservative systems. Application to particle in a one dimensional box –
normalization of wave function. Particle in a three dimensional box – separation of variables,
degeneracy.
Application of Schrödinger wave equation to hydrogen atom. The wave equation in spherical
polar coordinates. Separation of variables. Wave functions or atomic orbitals, radial and
angular parts of atomic orbitals. Quantum numbers (n, l, m). Radial functions, Radial
distribution functions and their plots, Angular functions and their plots (1s, 2s and2pz only).
The Stern-Gerlach experiment and the concept of electron spin, spin quantum number, spin
orbitals (elementary idea only). Pauli’s exclusion principle.

#### introductory Quantum Chemistry

Module II: Introductory Quantum Chemistry and the quantum mechanical model of the atom (10 hrs)

Operator algebra – linear and Hermitian operators, Laplacian and Hamiltonian operators,
eigen functions and eigen values of an operator. Non-commuting operators and the
Heisenberg's uncertainty principle.
Postulates of quantum mechanics. Well behaved functions. Time independent Schrödinger
wave equation for conservative systems. Application to particle in a one dimensional box –
normalization of wave function. Particle in a three dimensional box – separation of variables,
degeneracy.
Application of Schrödinger wave equation to hydrogen atom. The wave equation in spherical
polar coordinates. Separation of variables. Wave functions or atomic orbitals, radial and
angular parts of atomic orbitals. Quantum numbers (n, l, m). Radial functions, Radial
distribution functions and their plots, Angular functions and their plots (1s, 2s and2pz only).
The Stern-Gerlach experiment and the concept of electron spin, spin quantum number, spin
orbitals (elementary idea only). Pauli’s exclusion principle.

#### Alcohols and Phenols

Module I: Alcohols and Phenols (14 hrs)

[Prerequisites: Monohydric alcohols – Nomenclature, hydrogen bonding.]

Methods of formation of alcohols by reduction of carbonyl compounds.

Reaction of carbonyl compounds with Grignard reagent.

From alkenes (hydration, hydroboration oxidation and
oxymercuration-demercuration reactions). Reactions of alcohols: Acidic and basic nature of
alcohols, formation of ester, reaction with hydrogen halides (Lucas test), oxidation (with PCC
and KMnO4) – pinacol-pinacolone rearrangement (mechanism expected). Victor Meyer’s
test.
Phenols - Nomenclature, preparation of phenols (from cumene and aromatic sulphonic acid)
and acidity of phenol (substituent effects). Reactions of phenols – electrophilic aromatic
substitution (bromination, nitration and sulphonation) and carboxylation (Kolbe Schmitt
reaction). Riemer-Tiemann reaction (mechanism expected), Liebermann’s nitroso reaction
and Hauben-Hoesch reaction. Preparation of phenolphthalein and fluorescein and colour
change of phenolphthalein with pH.

#### ELECTROCHEMISTRY

Specific conductance, equivalent conductance and molar conductance - Variation of
conductance with dilution - Kohlrausch's law - Degree of ionization of weak electrolytes -
Application of conductance measurements – Conductometric titrations.
Galvanic cells - Cell and electrode potentials - IUPAC sign convention – Reference
electrodes – Standard Hydrogen electrode – Calomel electrode - Standard electrode
potential - Nernst equation - H2-O2 fuel cell.
Ostwald's dilution law – Buffer solutions – Buffer action [acetic acid/sodium acetate &
NH4OH/NH4Cl], applications of buffers.

#### SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

House hold, municipal and industrial solid waste – Non-degradable, degradable and
biodegradable waste – Hazardous waste – Pollution due to plastics. Solid waste
management: Recycling, digestion, dumping, incineration, land treatment and composting.
Impacts of medical waste and e-waste and their disposal. Energy production from waste.